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Skills

Event Skills
The WorldSkills Competition is the world's largest technical and vocational competition.
WorldSkills Competitions measure excellence, celebrate Champions, and encourage hundreds of thousands of young people to turn their passions into a profession. Competitor begin their development at local, regional and national competitions, before representing their country and region at the international level.
WorldSkills Competitions are held over two years and are a unique opportunity for countries and regions to benchmark their vocational education and training systems.
Our Competitions feature more than fifty skills across a wide range of industries. The level of competition at WorldSkills inspires many young people who see it, to consider pursuing these skills themselves, or to set up businesses with skills at their heart.
The WorldSkills event is not just a Competition – it includes a world-class Conference at which Ministers, policy-makers, and academics debate developments in the sector.
The WorldSkills Competition is the world's largest technical and vocational competition.
WorldSkills Competitions measure excellence, celebrate Champions, and encourage hundreds of thousands of young people to turn their passions into a profession. Competitor begin their development at local, regional and national competitions, before representing their country and region at the international level.
WorldSkills Competitions are held over two years and are a unique opportunity for countries and regions to benchmark their vocational education and training systems.
Our Competitions feature more than fifty skills across a wide range of industries. The level of competition at WorldSkills inspires many young people who see it, to consider pursuing these skills themselves, or to set up businesses with skills at their heart.
The WorldSkills event is not just a Competition – it includes a world-class Conference at which Ministers, policy-makers, and academics debate developments in the sector.

Skills

Skills

Manufacturing and Engineering Technology
  • Polymechanics and Automation

    Polymechanics and Automation

    Polymechanics technicians carry out technical work in production plants. Professionals such as Mechanical and Maintenance Fitters may be included in the Polymechanics industry. Using machining tools, people skilled in Polymechanics can produce and install parts for production machinery and equipment.

    The profession requires skills in logic and automation control and the related basic electrical and circuitry work. Since automation often involves pneumatic components, a basic understanding of technologies is also required.

    The skill of Polymechanics covers elements from electrical installation, mechanical engineering, hydraulics and pneumatics as well as mechanical and maintenance fitting. There is a wide range of technical skill required. The practitioner is likely to need to produce parts for production machinery and install those parts.

    Often the role involves troubleshooting, identifying problems during installation or remedying problems with established plant.

    The practitioner will work in a large range of industrial settings and production plants and may have specialist knowledge about one particular industry or may work more generally. Also, the practitioner may be employed within one plant, installing and maintaining production equipment or may work for a sub-contractor who will work across a number of industrial settings.

    The practitioner needs a keen awareness of the implications, both financially and for the business’ reputation, of delays in production as a result of reliability issues on the production line. They will therefore need to work in a logical manner and be sure to meet time constraints. They will also need to be able to provide expert advice and guidance on technical production issues and provide innovative and cost effective solutions to production issues.

    The working environment is likely to be one that is potentially very dangerous and hazardous. The practitioner therefore needs to proactively promote health and safety best practice and rigorously adhere to health and safety legislation.

  • Manufacturing Team Challenge

    Manufacturing Team Challenge

    The skill competition of Manufacturing Team Challenge is based on the design, manufacture assembly and testing of equipment by teams of complementary specialists. In either large or small manufacturing operations there is a strong demand for several specialists to come together to design, manufacture, assemble and test new or improved equipment either as a one-off item or as the prototype for mass production.

    Technicians skilled in project management, computer-aided design, programming, machining, welding, electrical/electronics and fitting can combine to form efficient and effective teams covering design through to commissioning. While each specialism has value in its own right, each team member requires additional attributes. The capacity to work within and contribute to a team is vital, requiring both self-understanding and interpersonal skills. Team members also need the ability to think beyond their own specialisms and the boundaries of each skill, in order to make the most of the team’s combined efforts.

    This skill has exceptional value as an exemplar of modern manufacturing practices. Whatever the size or sector of the manufacturing organization, continuous improvement and innovation are key to its survival and prosperity. These features do not happen in isolation, but through the combined efforts of high level, insightful specialists. Where diverse manufacturing teams are most successful, this will also be due to the inclusion within the team of both broad and specific financial and organizational skills. These skills will strictly control time and cost while seeking at all times to go beyond the client’s expectations for quality.

    Whatever their specialism, members of successful manufacturing teams have the opportunity to generate the skills normally associated with accelerated promotion and management development. As the skills also associated with successful enterprise, they open up many positive career choices within the labour market and economy.

  • Mechatronics

    Mechatronics

    Mechatronics technicians build automated systems for industry. Mechatronics involves mechanics, electronics, and pneumatics and computer technology. The computer technology element covers information technology applications, programmable machine control systems, and technology which enable communication between machines, equipment and people.

    Mechatronics combines skills in mechanics, pneumatics, electronically controlled systems, programming, and robotics and systems development. Mechatronics technicians design, build, maintain and repair automated equipment, and also program equipment control systems.

    Outstanding mechatronics technicians are able to meet a variety of needs within industry. They carry out mechanical maintenance and equipment building. They also deal with equipment for information gathering, components (sensors) and regulating units. Mechatronics technicians install, set-up, repair and adjust machine components and manage equipment control systems, including their programming.

    The more common and visible mechatronics appliances include shop tills (belt and cash register assemblies) and automated bottle machines.

    Industrial applications include automated production and process lines that include assembly, packaging, filling, labelling and testing, as well as automated distribution and logistics systems.

  • Mechanical Engineering CAD

    Mechanical Engineering CAD

    Computer aided design is the use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis or optimization of an engineering design. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communication through documentation and create a database for manufacturing. CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, manufacturing or other manufacturing processes.

    The technical and engineering drawings and images must convey information such as materials, processes, dimensions and tolerances according to application-specific conventions. CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space or curves, surfaces and solids in three-dimensional (3D) space. CAD is also used to produce computer animation for the special effects used in, for example, advertising and technical manuals.

    CAD is an important industrial art and is the way projects come true. It is extensively used in many applications, including automotive, ship building and aerospace industries, and in industrial design. The CAD process and outputs are essential to successful solutions for engineering and manufacturing problems.

    CAD software helps us explore ideas, visualize concepts through photorealistic renderings and movies and simulates how the design project will perform in the real world.

  • CNC Turning

    CNC Turning

    CNC Turning is a branch of engineering. Engineers have to find mechanical solutions that can make complex designs possible. Within an assembly that you may see and use every day, every single part interacts with every other. This is true of cars, Smartphones, aircraft, and so on; the possibilities are endless. For example, there are about 10,000 parts in just one car. Engineers create assemblies of many parts, and using many different materials, through CAD (Computer Assisted Drawing) software.

    Each part of an assembly is made of different materials, and needs different geometries, dimensions and surface qualities. The engineer brings all these requirements into technical drawings which are called “blueprints”. But who will build these parts? To answer that question we have to decide the best way to produce each part. There are many ways of doing this, like welding, milling, casting, and 3D Printing. One very important method is CNC Turning.

    A CNC Lathe is a machine on which material turns around an axis at high speed, and where cutting tools driven by computer software are moved to cut away excessive material to get the expected part. The CNC Turning Machinist receives the blueprint. Then he/she uses the Lathe in many ways to find solutions in order to build the part. These machines are very expensive, because they can do remarkable things. To have an idea of this, think what it means to achieve accuracy below 10 microns, which is six times thinner than a human hair.

    The CNC Turning Machinist has to use a computer to tell the Lathe how to move the tools and cut the part. He/she also has to set up the Lathe with all the cutting tools. These tools can cut almost every material (stainless steel, plastic, soft steel, aluminium, bronze, and so on) but we have to choose well. We also choose the clamping method. This is where the material will be held firm.

    When the machine starts cutting material, the Machinist makes sure that the dimensions exactly fit the blueprint specifications. For this, very accurate inspection tools are used. A smart Machinist will get the part to fit the blueprint specifications at the first attempt.

    The finished and quality controlled part is sent to the assembly line with every other part, and in the end, if everyone has done their job well, the finished assembly will meet expectations and please its customers.

  • CNC Milling

    CNC Milling

    Most people cannot imagine how important these technologies are in their lives. There is nothing that we use that hasn’t in its manufacturing utilized CNC technology. It is present in products and objects of everyday life as e.g. cars, airplanes, components of machines of all types, moulds for tools used for household machines, medical prosthetics, cell phones and toys etc.

    CNC milling machines are machine tools which are used for the shaping of metal and other solid materials. These machines exist in two basic forms: horizontal and vertical. This refers to the orientation of the cutting tool spindle. Early milling machines were manually or mechanically automated, but technological advances have led to the development of Computer Numerical Control, such as CNC machining centre. CNC refers to a computer (“control”) that reads and stores instructions. This numerical information generally “G and M” codes (a programing language) is then used to control and drives a machine tool, a powered mechanical device (“machining centre”). A machining centre is used to fabricate components using cutting tools for removal of material.

    CNC technology includes machining tools such as lathes, multi-axis spindles, wire electrical discharge machines and milling machines, where the functions formerly performed by human operators are now performed by a computer control module. The professionals associated with this skill use CNC machines (3-Axis, 4-5 Axis or Multi-Axis machines) to cut and shape precision products as mentioned above.

    To form the finished part, the cutting process can be started from a solid block, pre-machined part, casting or forgings. For those scenarios, the skill requires the CNC milling machinist to read and interpret complex technical drawings and specifications and work to a high degree of precision and detail; to be proficient at metal work skills and understand how metals react to various processes; to be a skilled computer operator in order to use industry specific software; to be highly skilled machine operator.

    A program is required to operate the machine tool, can be generated manually or using Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture (CAD/CAM) software.

    To achieve the finished part the CNC milling machinist professionals undertake a sequence of essential activities:

    • Interpret engineering drawings and follow the specifications
    • Generate a process and program (logical process plan) with a CAD/CAM system and/or G and M-codes
    • Set up the tooling, work holding device and work piece on the CNC milling centre
    • Manipulate cutting conditions, based on the properties of the material and tooling used
    • Operate, inspect and maintain the accuracy of dimensions within the specified tolerances

    Optimize the process taking into account the production type: large quantities of one part, small batches or one-of-a-kind items.

    Today a wide range of industries require CNC milling machinists professionals to program, operate and keep sophisticated machining centre’s running in an efficient and reliable way. Large enterprises such as automobile plants, medium sized enterprises such as mould making and small enterprises in the maintenance field are some of many examples of where the CNC milling machinist professional plays a key, integral role to the success of the metalwork industries.

  • Welding

    Welding

    A welder prepares and joins a range of metals of various gauges using electrical and electrical/gas shielded processes. A welder needs to be able to interpret engineering working drawings, standards and symbols correctly translate these requirements into accurate structures and products.

    Welders need to have a thorough knowledge and understanding of safe working procedures and personal protection equipment. They need to gain specific knowledge of a wide range of welding equipment and processes as well as a good working knowledge of metallurgy. They need to be familiar with electricity and electrical processes.

    Welders join sections, pipe and plate and fabricate large and small pressure vessels. A welder prepares, assembles and joins a wide range of metals and metal alloys using various welding processes including MMAW (manual metal arc welding), MAGSW (metal arc gas shielded welding), TAGSW (Tungsten arc gas shielded welding) gas welding and cutting. They use gas, electrical, and gas shielded electrical processes to join and cut a wide range of materials. They must be able to choose and operate the correct equipment, process and methodology depending upon the material being joined.

    Welders may be engaged in using thermal cutting processes and should be able to identify and follow the correct preparation for joining as applied to the type, thickness and intended use of the joint. They use grinding and cutting equipment to prepare and finish welded joints. Modern methods of joining, as well as those noted above, include mechanized processes such as submerged arc, plasma arc, stud welding and laser welding.

    A welder can work in a unit or factory which produces fabrications and/or structures for industries as diverse as civil engineering, mechanical engineering, transport, marine engineering, and construction, service and leisure industries. Welders also work on site preparation, construction, and the repair and maintenance of structures within the areas described above. A welder can work in many locations and situations, ranging from a bench in a factory, to shipyards, power stations and off-shore structures in order to inspect and repair gas or oil rig terminals. Welders also work in engineering, construction, power generating and petro-chemical plants. The working environment may include hazardous settings such as the open sea.

    The modern welder may specialize in one or a number of welding processes and environments. He or she may also be asked to work in exotic alloys such as duplex stainless steels and cupronickels. The quality of the welding will vary according to cost and function, with the most skilled welders depended upon to carry out the finest work where faults and failure may have the most serious consequences in terms of cost, safety and environmental damage.

  • Electronics

    Electronics

    The electronics industry is very diverse and has evolved into several specialisms. Some technicians/engineers will work across many aspects of electronics, but increasing specialization and technical developments means that specialist technician/engineers are widely employed. The key areas of specialism which can be seen as careers in their own right include the assembly and wiring of electronic products; the designing of prototype circuits to specifications; the installation and commissioning of equipment including the provision of customer support; service and maintenance which include a service both in situ and remotely; and monitoring and testing to specifications sub-assemblies or systems and approving fit-for-purpose and simulating outcomes on computers.

    Electronics specialists need to work in a wide range of industries by supporting highly technical specialist equipment. These industries include:

    •               Aerospace/aeronautics

    •               The military

    •               Robotics

    •               Audio/TV/entertainment

    •               Laboratories and hospitals

    •               Higher education research laboratories

    •               Communications and telecommunications

    •               Power

    •               Transport

    •               Security

    •               Manufacturing including instrumentation

    Electronics technicians/engineers must work with a high degree of accuracy and precision, conforming to detailed specifications and international quality standards and demonstrating extensive technical ability. Due to the constant developments in technology, the electronics technician/engineer needs to be proactive in ensuring that his/her skills and knowledge are up-to-date and meet industry standards and expectations. The technician/engineer may work directly with clients and will therefore need to demonstrate excellent customer service and communication skills and work effectively to time schedules. When working with clients, the technician/engineer may have to explain elements of complex electronics principles to assist the client to use equipment correctly. Often the nature of the establishment in which the electronics expert works will require him/her to respect confidentiality with respect to highly commercially sensitive information and to demonstrate integrity, honesty and a strong ethical sense.

    The electronics specialist will work with a wide range of tools, specialist hi-tech equipment and materials. Increasingly, computers and specialist software for communications technology is embedded into the work. In addition, tasks will also require the use of specialist hand tools for the assembly and maintenance of circuits and surface mounted technology.

  • Industrial Control

    Industrial Control

    The skill of Industrial Control covers elements from electrical installation and automation installation. However, the requirements are now leaning more and more towards automation installation. There are a wide range of technical skills required from the practitioner, including installation of conduits, cables, instruments, devices and control centres. The practitioner will also need to design circuits and program Programmable Logic Controllers, parameterize bus systems and configure Human Machine Interfaces.

     A key skill of the practitioner is troubleshooting, identifying problems during installation or remedying problems with an established plant.

    The practitioner will work in a large range of industrial settings; he or she may have specialist knowledge about one particular industry or may work more generally. Also, the practitioner may be employed within one plant, installing and maintaining production equipment, or may work for a sub-contractor who will span a number of industrial settings.

    The practitioner needs an awareness of the implications, both financially and for the business’s reputation, of delays in production as a result of reliability issues on the production line. They will therefore need to work in a logical manner and be sure to meet time constraints. They will also need to provide expert advice and guidance on both technical production issues and innovative and cost effective solutions to production problems and requirements.

    The working environment is likely to be one that is potentially very dangerous and hazardous. The practitioner therefore needs proactively to promote best practice in health and safe working and rigorously adhere to health and safety legislation.

  • Mobile Robotics

    Mobile Robotics

    Mobile Robotics is a fast evolving, solutions orientated, industry within which the robotics engineer is a significant and growing work role. Mobile robotics is an important part of the industry, with applications in diverse industries, including manufacturing, agriculture, aerospace, mining, and medicine.

    A robotics engineer works in offices, manufacturing plants or laboratories; he or she designs, maintains, develops new applications and conducts research to expand the potential for robots. The role begins with a strong focus on a specific business problem, in a particular sector. For example in manufacturing there may be a need to increase capacity by creating robots for tasks that can be automated. Mobile robots may also be designed to explore areas that are inaccessible or dangerous for human beings.

    Careful, deep client consultation is required, resulting in an accurate specification. The design phase follows and a prototype is assembled. The robot is then programmed and tested to ensure high, consistent performance. At the heart of every robot is a robotics engineer who thinks about what a robot needs to do and works with several engineering disciplines to design and put together the optimal piece of equipment, demonstrating a commitment to attention to detail. In this instance the robotics engineer uses existing technologies to create solutions to new challenges. He or she is not creating new (robot) technology.

    Robotics engineers must be familiar with logic, microprocessors, and computer programming so that they can design the right robot for each application. They must also prepare specifications for the robot's capabilities as they relate to the work environment. In addition, robotics engineers are responsible for cost efficient design, cost-price calculations and quality-control.

    Integral to the role of the high performing robotics engineer are a range of skills related to work organization and self-management. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills, with a particular strength in working well in a team, are equally important. An ability to be innovative and creative in resolving technological challenges and generating solutions is also essential.

    Working across sectors internationally and being able to transfer analytical skills is a feature of the excellent robotics engineer, together with a commitment to continuing specialist and professional development and a determination to resolve problems through experimenting and risk taking within self-managed boundaries. In an increasingly global industry, which is ‘breaking new ground’ and altering the way we live and work, there are significant opportunities for sustainable careers in robotics engineering. The opportunities carry with them the need to work with diverse cultures, industries and fast paced technological change. The diversity of skills associated with robotics engineering is therefore likely to expand.

  • Construction Metal Work

    Construction Metal Work

    Construction metalworking involves the skills required to mark out, cut and assemble, repair and maintain steel structures such as buildings, bridges, heavy plant and lifting equipment. A construction metalworker must have a good knowledge of mathematical calculations and geometrical techniques, and be able to interpret simple and complex engineering drawings. He or she must be able to fabricate small to large structures and check them for correct dimensions, square, parallel and flatness.

    A construction sheet metalworker must be capable of applying the above skills to a range of steels including low carbon, stainless, alloy steels and aluminium alloys. He or she must also have a comprehensive knowledge of a range of industrial cutting and forming processes to suit these materials.

    Construction metal workers can work within an engineering workshop for cutting, fabricating, assembling and joining / welding of heavy to light steel structures. Construction metalworkers can also work out on site as required in positioning and fixing fabricated steel structures.

    Construction metalworkers interpret engineering and construction drawings to lay out, cut, shape and accurately assemble light to heavy metal sections and light and heavy sheet/plate into structures such as crane jibs, bulldozer buckets, crane runaways, and steel substructures for roofs, buildings and halls.

    A construction metalworker uses a range of cutting and shaping tools and equipment to prepare sections for assembly. He or she uses a variety of standard welding processes to assemble and join these materials into structures and products.

    Construction metalwork serves industries that include dairy, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, and civil engineering projects that may involve steel structures for buildings, bridges or lifting equipment.

  • Plastic Die Engineering

    Plastic Die Engineering

    Plastic Die Engineers are engaged in the mass production of plastic products of high quality but low cost. This is achieved by producing a mould based on drawings by a competent designer who understands Design for Manufacturing and assembly principles, having hands on injection moulding, mould making, plastic part design and mould design software experiences.

    The designing and processing of a mould is done with the help of CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Machining) systems. Most of the machining is done on CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining centres. The machined parts are then polished according to requirements and assembled to keep them ready for trial. Completed moulds will be installed in an injection moulding machine, and then plastic products are manufactured.

    This is a very rewarding profession. Plastic Die Engineers are increasingly in demand. An industrial market research consultancy specializing in plastic products and appliances, predicts that the world’s use of commodity plastic will reach 510 million tons in 2020. Plastic Die Engineering is a fast paced world which is highly creative and full of opportunities for skilled and talented people. It is an essential aspect of engineering because most plastic parts cannot be made without a die. Therefore Plastic Die Engineers are a critical link in the overall plastic injection moulding process.

    Light weight, availability of various designs and cost reduction are the greatest advantages to industries. These days, from smart phones to automobiles, since there are so many different fields of industries that plastic die engineering is involved, the demand for plastic die engineering has significantly increased. Plastic injection moulded components are also used in telecommunications, medical, aerospace and automobile industries, for home appliances, office automation, entertainment and electronics. Thus the range of different fields of requirements provide many challenges, ranging from modelling of the product, designing the die, to manufacturing it, inspection and the trouble shooting of moulding defects for good mass production.

    The skilled practitioner needs excellent levels of skill in numeracy, hand and machining skill, polishing, assembling, testing and troubleshooting.

  • Prototype Modelling

    Prototype Modelling

    The prototype modelling practitioner is involved with the design, creation, testing and modification of prototypes. In many fields, there is great uncertainty as to whether a new design will actually do what is desired. New designs often have unexpected problems. A prototype is often used as part of the product design process to give engineers and designers the ability to explore design alternatives, test theories and confirm performance prior to starting production of a new product. Prototype modelling practitioner use their experience to tailor the prototype according to the specific unknowns still present in the intended design. For example, some prototypes are used to confirm and verify consumer interest in a proposed design, whereas other prototypes will attempt to verify the performance or suitability of a specific design approach.

    In general, an iterative series of prototypes will be designed, constructed and tested as the final design emerges and is prepared for production. In most cases, multiple iterations of prototypes are used progressively to refine the design. It is common to design, test, evaluate and then modify the design based on analysis of the prototype.

    In many product development organizations, prototyping specialists are employed. These are individuals with specialized training and skills in general fabrication techniques that can help bridge theoretical designs and fabrication of prototypes. For a company engaged in rapid prototyping and manufacturing or functional testing, prototype models are crucial for troubleshooting potential problems in the design process.

    A team with excellent interpersonal and communication skills will provide clients with confidence that the specialist advice and guidance resulting from prototyping fully supports their production plans. The prototyping engineer will require a range of skills including 3D CAD systems, CAM systems such as milling, printing and other CAM machining, vacuum casting, prototype model making by hand tools and machines, and spray painting and finishing.

  • Industrial Mechanic Millwright

    Industrial Mechanic Millwright

    Industrial mechanic millwrights maintain and repair stationary industrial machinery, mechanical equipment, automated and robotic systems. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer/employer. Therefore the industrial mechanic millwright has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer/employer and thus maintain and grow the business. Industrial mechanic millwrights are most often involved with installing, maintaining, repairing and removing machinery and equipment in industrial plants and factories.

    The industrial mechanic millwright works indoors and outdoors, and on small and large projects. He or she will plan and design, select and install, commission, test, report, maintain, fault find mechanical industrial systems to a high standard. Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, flexibility and a deep body of knowledge are the universal attributes of the outstanding industrial mechanic millwright.

    Generally, the industrial mechanic millwright works in a team and occasionally alone. The individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. Every step in the process matters. This covers working to provide a safe mechanical installation and maintenance service, in accordance with relevant standards, through to diagnosing malfunctions, and commissioning stand-alone industrial mechanical and automated systems. Concentration, precision, accuracy and attention to detail are all essential because mistakes are largely irreversible, costly and potentially life threatening.

    With the international mobility of people the industrial mechanic millwright faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented industrial mechanic millwright there are many commercial and international opportunities; however these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with industrial installations is therefore likely to expand.

  • Chemical Laboratory Technology

    Chemical Laboratory Technology

  • Water Technology

    Water Technology

    Water Supply Engineering Technicians work in municipal and industrial water supply companies. They carry out their work independently on the basis of technical documents and rules as well as on legal bases. Water Supply Technicians procure information, plan and coordinate their work. They document their services and take measures to ensure quality assurance, safety, health and environmental protection at work.

    They may work in large or small facilities for processing drinking water, performing a range of technician duties in larger ones, and management roles in smaller ones.

    Wastewater Technicians work in the area of drainage networks as well as in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. They also carry out their work independently on the basis of technical documents and regulations as well as legal requirements. They acquire information, plan and coordinate their work. They document their services and take measures to ensure quality assurance, safety, health and environmental protection at work. They are electro-technically qualified personnel. As with the Water Supply Engineering Technician, in larger facilities they may have wide-ranging technician roles, while in small facilities they may be classed as managers.

Information and Communication Technology
  • Information Network Cabling

    Information Network Cabling

    Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another.  There are several types of cable which are commonly used in network infrastructures.  In some cases, a network will utilise only one type of cable, while other networks will use a variety of cable types.  The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network’s topology, protocol and size. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the development of a successful network.

    The Network Cabling Technician constructs the infrastructure of all the telecommunication networks such as those for Wide Area Networks (WAN), Local Area Networks (LAN) and Cable TV (CATV).  This work is highly technical and requires detailed specialised knowledge in order to independently design and install networks that meet clients’ needs and conforms to recognised industry standards. The technician will create the foundation which is the basis for the network, install cables appropriate for the intended use, maintain and test and commission the network.

    The technician / installer may work for either a telecommunications or a communications network company. He or she will install network cabling for businesses both large and small or for domestic users, for services such as cable TV, telephone and broadband installations.

    Communications networks are crucial to the efficiency of business and commerce. Network failure can result in wasted time and lost revenue.  Robust and reliable communications networks are therefore critical to business success.

  • IT Software Solutions for Business

    IT Software Solutions for Business

    The rapid pace of globalization over the past decade has been largely driven by developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). IT specialists are increasingly in great demand in several areas, one of which is providing software solutions for business.

    The development of software solutions to improve business productivity encompasses many different skills and disciplines. Key to these is an awareness of the fast changing nature of the industry and the ability to keep up with the rapid pace of change.

    IT software solution professionals always work closely with clients to modify existing systems or create new systems. They may modify “off the shelf” software and integrate it into the existing systems. They often work as part of a team of software professionals responsible for the requirement specification, system analysis and design, construction, testing, training and implementation, as well as maintenance of a business software system.

    The tasks performed by IT software solution professionals include but not limited to the following:

    •               Review current system and present ideas for improvement, including cost benefit analysis

    •               Analyse and specify user requirements

    •               Produce detailed specifications

    •               Develop software system for the required solution and test the software solution thoroughly

    •               Prepare user training materials, train users, and present software solution to users

    •               Install, implement and maintain the software system

    IT software solutions professionals can be employed in large, medium and small enterprises as software engineer, in consulting firms as consultant, and in software houses as contractor.

    They can operate in a wide variety of roles including development role to tailor-make or customize software solutions, supporting role to operate system, business analyst role to provide solution to simplify and automate routine office and business activities, as well as training role to train user in using the application software

  • Print Media Technology

    Print Media Technology

    The Print Media Technician is involved with all aspects of the printing process from the initial planning and preparation, through the print run, checking for consistent quality to cleaning up after the print run is complete. The work is usually large scale production of printed materials for a range of clients. Specifically, Print Media Technology involves the production of printed material using an offset sheet-fed press and other equipment to create finished, printed products. This occupation is responsible for producing all printed material at a printing operation.

    The Technician will usually work in printing businesses or publishers and will use complex specialist equipment. A detailed knowledge of the equipment and materials used is vital to produce high quality products that comply with the specification in a cost-effective and efficient manner.

    The Print Media Technician requires an in-depth knowledge of handling, troubleshooting, and maintaining printing factors such as ink, paper, and equipment. Generally, production of the printed product will use a traditional ink-on-paper process, but increasingly technicians are using toner-on-paper technology for shorter runs and variable data.

    Print Media Technicians also have to be able to mix custom ink colours and operate cutting equipment to produce a job to a customer's specifications. Quality control equipment like densitometers and photospectrometres are used to verify and adjust the print quality.

  • Web Technologies

    Web Technologies

    Web Design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites. The diversity of the skills required by a web developer are many, often to the point it is difficult for a web designer to excel in all aspects. As a result, a team may cover the Web Design process, with each member of the team having their own strengths, specialties and role in the development process.

    Web Design involves implementing specific solutions that follow the business rules and objectives outlined by the client. Web Designers develop a professional relationship with their clients, interacting with them in order to develop a deep understanding of the requirements and convert these into a website specification. Strong design and communication skills, coupled with research techniques and a grasp of target audiences, markets and trends, will ensure initial client satisfaction and credibility for the Web Designer.

    Having completed the website planning and design, the Web Designer then integrates the website with third party tools and platforms. During the development process web designers design and develop the databases, create programs, tests and debug the website. The current trend is to also integrate the website with Social Media and take advantage of the leverage these modern platforms bring.

    All these skills may apply equally to the re-design or an upgrade of an existing website.

    A Web Designer has many employment opportunities. This can range from being a self-employed freelancer to being employed by media organizations and advertising agencies. Web Designer positions may be broad in scope or specialize in an area such as Graphic Design, Client Management, Front End Development, Back End/Server Side Development and User End Designer. Whichever role a web designer chooses to specialize in they will need to have access to ICT facilities, open source libraries and frameworks.

    High performing Web Designers may have broad or specialist web-related skills. However, to excel they must have a strong grasp of copyright law and a well-developed personal code of ethics. They must understand artistic values, and take personal responsibility for being constantly at the forefront of trends and web technology. They must also be responsive to clients and have the ability to work in structured and unstructured teams and groups. These qualities enable the Web Designer to contribute and take advantage of this rapidly developing aspect of modern communications technology.

  • IT Network Systems Administration

    IT Network Systems Administration

    An IT Network Systems Administrator works in small or large organizations in the commercial and public sectors, offering a wide range of IT services which are critical for the operation of daily business. Any ‘downtime’ is costly for an organization therefore the IT Network Systems Administrator has a responsibility to work professionally and interactively with users in order to meet their needs and ensure continuance of the systems and service levels they require to perform their roles effectively. The IT Network Systems Administrator also offers advice and guidance on the development of systems and services to take the organization forward.

    The IT Network Systems Administrator works in diverse environments including network operations centres, internet service providers, data centres e.g. Amazon and climate-controlled server rooms. He or she offers a wide range of services based on: user support, troubleshooting, design, installation/upgrading and configuration of operating systems and network devices.

    The IT Network Systems Administrator may at some stage in their career specialize in user support, design, installation of operating systems or configuration of networking devices. Irrespective of this, work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem-solving, a dedication to research/keeping up to date with industry developments and a consistently methodical and investigative approach are the universal attributes of the outstanding IT Network Systems Administrator.

    In a mobile labour market, the IT Network Systems Administrator may work in teams, or alone, or both from time to time. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced IT Network Systems Administrator takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From ensuring businesses remain consistently in operation, with limited IT systems breakdowns, to contributing to the design of new systems, every process matters and mistakes cost the business money.

    With the fast globalization of IT systems and the international mobility of people IT Network Systems Administrators face rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented IT Network Systems Administrator there are many commercial, public sector and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures, and to keep up to date with fast changing industry developments. The diversity of skills associated with IT network systems administration is therefore likely to expand.

  • Cloud Computing

    Cloud Computing

  • Cyber Security

    Cyber Security

Construction and Building Technology
  • Architectural Stonemasonry

    Architectural Stonemasonry

    An architectural stonemason generally works in the commercial sector, cutting to shape all natural stones (granite, limestone, sandstone and marble) by hand or with Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machines.

    There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore the stonemason has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business.

    The architectural stonemason works on heritage sites and in workshops. The work will range from basic places of worship to massive Gothic cathedrals, from simple but significant buildings to the grand architectural and secular commercial and municipal buildings that define a country’s heritage.

    He or she will produce stonemasonry components, and undertake letter cutting and carving.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, working safely and accurately are the universal attributes of the outstanding architectural stonemason. Whether the architectural stonemason is working alone or in a team the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy.

    Mistakes are irreversible and very costly. Every part in the process, from working safely through to exceptional precision, accuracy and attention to detail, is important.

    Restoring, conserving, renovating and maintaining cultural and architectural heritage is highly valued for structures that are locally, regionally, nationally and internationally significant. For the talented architectural stonemason there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with architectural stonemasonry is therefore like to expand.

  • Wall and Floor Tiling

    Wall and Floor Tiling

    A tiler generally works on commercial and residential projects. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore the tiler has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business. Tiling is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry, and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The tiler works internally and externally, including in the homes of customers and on building sites, in all weather conditions and on small and major projects. The work includes the laying of tiles of ceramics, mosaic and natural stone on walls, floors and staircases in houses, commercial, industrial and public buildings, churches, swimming pools, outside installations and façades to provide protective and decorative finishes. It also includes the construction of small walls and steps from bricks or blocks.

    The tiler will interpret drawings, set out and measure, remove any existing covering, prepare surfaces, lay the tiles in the desired pattern, grout and finish to a high standard. Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, and working accurately are the universal attributes of the outstanding tiler. Whether the tiler is working alone (many are self-employed or sub-contractors) or in a team on large projects, the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. Experienced tilers may also specialize in one area of work such as mosaics and they can work for specialist tiling firms specializing for example in artistic work or competition swimming pools.

    From working safely and tidily through to exceptional planning and scheduling, concentration, precision, accuracy and attention to detail to achieve an excellent finish, every step in the process matters. Mistakes are largely irreversible and can be very costly

     With the international mobility of people the tiler faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented tiler there are many commercial and international opportunities; however these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with tilers is therefore likely to expand.

  • Plumbing and Heating

    Plumbing and Heating

    A plumbing and heating technician works on commercial, residential, agricultural and industrial projects. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore the practitioner has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business. Plumbing and heating is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry, and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The plumbing and heating technician works internally, including the homes of customers and on small and major projects. He or she will plan and design, select and install, commission, test, report, maintain, fault find and repair systems to a high standard. Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, flexibility and a deep body of knowledge are the universal attributes of the outstanding practitioner.

    Whether the plumbing and heating technician is working alone or in a team the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From working to provide a safe and reliable plumbing and heating service, in accordance with relevant standards, through to diagnosing malfunctions, programming and commissioning home and building automation systems, concentration, precision, accuracy and attention to detail every step in the process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible, costly and potentially life threatening.

    With the international mobility of people the plumbing and heating technician faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented practitioner there are many commercial and international opportunities; however these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse needs, cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with plumbing and heating is therefore likely to expand.

  • Electrical Installations

    Electrical Installations

    An electrician works on commercial, residential, agricultural and industrial projects. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore the electrician has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business. Electrical installation is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry, and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The electrician works internally, including the homes of customers and on small and major projects. He or she will plan and design, select and install, commission, test, report, maintain, fault find and repair systems to a high standard. Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, flexibility and a deep body of knowledge are the universal attributes of the outstanding electrician.

    Whether the electrician is working alone or in a team the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From working to provide a safe and reliable electrical installation and maintenance service, in accordance with relevant standards, through to diagnosing malfunctions, programming and commissioning home and building automation systems, concentration, precision, accuracy and attention to detail every step in the process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible, costly and potentially life threatening.

    With the international mobility of people the electrician faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented electrician there are many commercial and international opportunities; however these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with electrical installations is therefore likely to expand.

  • Bricklaying

    Bricklaying

    A bricklayer generally works on commercial and residential projects. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore the bricklayer has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business.

    Bricklaying is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry, and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The bricklayer works internally and externally, including the homes of customers and on building sites, in all weather conditions on small and major projects. He or she will interpret drawings, set out and measure, construct and finish to a high standard.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, working accurately are the universal attributes of the outstanding bricklayer. Whether the bricklayer is working alone or in a team the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy.

    From working safely and tidily with resilience and endurance through to exceptional planning and scheduling, concentration, precision, accuracy and attention to detail to achieve an excellent finish every step in the process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible and very costly.

    With the international mobility of people the bricklayer faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented bricklayer there are many commercial and international opportunities; however these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with bricklaying is therefore likely to expand.

  • Plastering and Drywall Systems

    Plastering and Drywall Systems

    The skilled plasterer may work on both internal and external plastering and rendering work. Much modern internal work is completed using drywall systems which involve the plasterer creating metal frames and installing plasterboard before the application on the final surface. These constructions can be complex and include curves and openings for doors and windows. Traditional plastering involves the preparation of the background prior to application of the plaster surface. The plasterer will prepare materials for use and be fully aware of legislation and official guidance relating to the preparation and use of materials. In addition to plastering flat surfaces, the skilled plasterer will create and install decorative mouldings. Plasterers will also be required to make repairs.

    The plasterer may work on large construction sites for domestic, commercial or industrial use, in single domestic and commercial premises or on historic buildings and heritage sites. Much plastering work on larger sites is sub-contracted and as such many skilled plasterers will be self-employed, meaning that they have to take responsibility for tax and other earnings related regulation.

    A high degree of accuracy, care and skill is required. Preparation for plastering work will include complex mathematical calculations. The practitioner needs to be able to read, interpret and analyse complex specifications describing the work required and be able to convert these plans into reality.

    A range of materials can be used depending on the site and the planned use of the finished building. Some materials can be harmful, so care must always be taken by the plasterer to prevent injury or damage in use or disposal of waste.

    Plasterers often form part of a team, working efficiently and effectively with other skilled craftsmen in a logical and well planned manner.

  • Painting and Decorating

    Painting and Decorating

    A painter and decorator works in the commercial and public sectors and is responsible for the external and internal appearance of a building and its protection from water, rust, mould and insects. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the service required and the payment made by the client. Therefore the painter and decorator has a continuing responsibility to work professionally and interactively with the client in order to give satisfaction and thus maintain and grow the business. Painting and decorating is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry, and with the many products that support it.

    The painter and decorator works internally and externally in very diverse environments, for example in companies, factories, schools, hotels, the homes of clients and on building sites in all weather conditions. He or she may offer a range of services, including interpreting client requirements/drawings, advising on designs/colours, painting, spraying, decorative coatings, wallpapering, gilding and sign writing to a high standard.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation, creativity, and the ability to prepare surfaces thoroughly with meticulous care and work accurately are the universal attributes of the outstanding painter and decorator. In a mobile labour market, the painter and decorator may work in teams, or alone, or in both from time to time.

    Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced painter and decorator takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From carefully determining the requirements of the client, working safely and tidily, exceptional planning and scheduling, precision and attention to detail to the fine gilding of objects and finishing of furniture, every process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible and costly.

    With the international mobility of people, the painter and decorator faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented painter and decorator there are many commercial and international opportunities; however these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures, trends and fashions. The diversity of skills associated with painting and decorating is therefore likely to expand.

  • Cabinetmaking

    Cabinetmaking

    Cabinetmaking covers the manufacture of free-standing and built-in furniture and units, using wood at the sole or main material. It may include the design of furniture, but normally comprises the creation of furniture and units from designs prepared by others. Cabinetmaking differs from joinery through the quality of the wood and associated materials used, and the intricacy and aesthetic quality of the finished items. There is, however, some overlap between cabinetmaking and joinery.

    A cabinetmaker generally works on commercial and residential assignments of a high quality and value. He or she will therefore exhibit very high standards of skill and professionalism in order to justify clients’ expectations and willingness to pay. Most cabinetmakers work in small companies which have to be very sensitive to their reputation and market in order to sustain their businesses’ viability.

    The cabinetmaker will produce furniture and fittings in a workshop, at least until installing fitted items. However, in order to meet clients’ needs, including for the items to add to the aesthetic qualities of their environment they will be placed in, he or she will know intimately where bespoke items are intended to be placed. For items produced speculatively rather than for known clients, the cabinetmaker will have a clear view of the types of location and setting that will show the items at their best.

    The cabinetmaker will produce, interpret and/or adapt drawings, set out and measure, cut, form joints, assemble, install if need be, and finish to a high standard. The quality of his/her work will show in:

    •               The selection of the wood and other materials

    •               The placing of the wood to bring out its particular characteristics

    •               Construction techniques which allow for the natural movement of timber to achieve longevity and quality in the furniture piece

    •               The selection of additional materials including veneers and fittings

    •               The near-perfect fit of each part following accurate measurement, cutting and assembly, and

    •               The final appearance of the item

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, working precisely and accurately are the universal attributes of the cabinetmaker. He or she assumes a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From working safely through to exceptional planning and organizing, accuracy, concentration and attention to detail to achieve an excellent finish every step in the process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible and very costly.

    Modern technology and mass production have enabled furniture and fittings, previously available only to the wealthy, to be more widely available. However, for those with disposable income and an eye for quality, the cabinetmaker is able to produce furniture and fittings that are a lasting pleasure both to use and to look at. In this discerning market the outstanding cabinetmaker will always be in demand.

  • Joinery

    Joinery

    A joiner generally works on commercial and residential projects. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore the joiner has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business. Joinery is closely associated with cabinet making and carpentry plus other parts of the construction industry and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The joiner is usually based in a workshop because the formation of various joints requires specialist machinery, but sometimes undertakes installations in the homes of customers and on building sites. He or she will produce and interpret drawings, set out and measure, cut, form joints, assemble, install and finish to a high standard. The joiner usually produces items such as interior and exterior doors, windows, stairs, tables and bookshelves.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, working precisely and accurately are the universal attributes of the outstanding joiner. Whether the joiner is working alone or in a team the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From working safely through to exceptional planning and organizing, accuracy, concentration and attention to detail to achieve an excellent finish, every step in the process matters. Mistakes are largely irreversible and very costly.

    With the international mobility of people, the joiner faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented joiner there are many commercial and international opportunities; however these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with joinery is therefore likely to expand.

  • Carpentry

    Carpentry

    A carpenter generally works on commercial and residential projects. Carpentry is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry, and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The carpenter works internally and externally, including in the homes of customers and on building sites in all weather conditions. He or she will interpret drawings, set out and measure, cut, form joints, assemble, install and finish to a high standard.

    The carpenter’s work includes:

    •               Measuring, cutting and installing components of a residence or commercial building including floor, wall and roof systems. It can also include stairs, interior and exterior finishes, roofing materials, doors, windows and other finishing components. Accurately measuring and cutting enables greater quality for items like trim and moulding which must be finished with great precision

    •               Constructing forms for concrete, wall and roof systems of the structures

    •               Installing components that are seen on the inside and outside of residential or commercial buildings such as sidings, shutters, roofing materials, as well as out-buildings such as garages, sheds, gazebos, pergolas and play houses.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, and working precisely and accurately, are the universal attributes of the outstanding carpenter. Whether the carpenter is working alone or in a team the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy.

    Every step in the carpentry process matters; mistakes are largely irreversible and have a very high cost. This means that the carpenter must work safely and tidily, have stamina, demonstrate exceptional planning and organization skills, concentrate and pay attention to detail in order to achieve an excellent finish.

    With the international mobility of people, the carpenter faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented carpenter there are many commercial and international opportunities. However these also carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends.

    A carpenter usually receives his or her training by working as an apprentice with a more experienced professional. Training normally includes using hand and power tools; doing rough and finish carpentry work; learning how more intricate jobs are completed, and the importance of accuracy.

  • Landscape Gardening

    Landscape Gardening

    The key role for a landscape gardener is to design, install and maintain gardens and landscaped areas. The landscape gardener will need to meet with clients to discuss their proposed projects, provide advice and guidance on the practicalities of the project and carefully interpret the client’s wishes. Projects can be varied and incorporate private and public gardens, parks, public open spaces, sports and recreation venues, playgrounds and other landscaped areas. The landscape gardener must be able to develop innovative schemes that meet the needs of clients and comply with planning regulations, while retaining a vision of how the finished project will fit into the overall area and how garden spaces interact with urban environments.

    The landscape gardener may be involved at all stages of a project from the initial consultation and design, throughout the installation process, project managing and supervising the installation team, to providing advice and guidance on on-going maintenance and development as the garden grows and matures.

    A detailed knowledge of both hard and soft landscaping is required, including knowledge of plants and trees in order to produce and implement a balanced plan that takes account of the area’s advantages and limitations relating to soil type and structure, geography, climatic conditions and planned use. Knowledge and skills relating to hard landscaping and construction are also essential. Related skills such as electrical installation, plumbing and irrigation systems are also needed to produce an overall project that is sustainable and has longevity.

    A wide range of natural stones and materials will be used by the landscape gardener. They must therefore be aware of the impact of such materials on the environment, both in terms of sustainability of limited natural resources and also the impact of landscaping a natural environment and its wildlife.

    Gardens and landscaped areas enhance the quality of life for millions of people across the world by providing beautiful areas for recreation and relaxation, open spaces in dense urban environments, appropriate spaces for people of all ages and abilities, and facilities that support community activity and cohesion. For the talented landscape gardener there are global opportunities to be involved in the developing world and in revitalizing existing established habitations.

  • Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

    A refrigeration and air conditioning engineer works on commercial, residential, public and industrial projects, including transportation and storage. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product and service required and the resulting cost and price; therefore this branch of engineering covers a wide range of products and services. It is also essential for the refrigeration and air conditioning engineer to meet high and growing standards of service in order to comply with the requirements of the customer and maintain and grow the business. Refrigeration and air conditioning is closely associated with other parts of the construction and transportation industries at all stages, and is equally affected by rapid change in these sectors, including growing environmental trends and requirements.

    The refrigeration and air conditioning engineer generally works inside domestic, commercial or public buildings during and after construction and production, and on projects of all sizes and types. He or she will plan and design, install, test, commission, report, maintain, fault find and repair systems to a high standard. Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, flexibility and a deep body of knowledge are the universal attributes of the outstanding practitioner.

    Whether the refrigeration and air conditioning engineer is working alone or in a team the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From ensuring a safe and reliable installation and maintenance service, in accordance with relevant standards, through to diagnosing malfunctions, upgrading and commissioning, and fault finding and correction, the skills of concentration, precision, accuracy and attention to detail at every step in the process are crucial. Mistakes may be very expensive and damaging, while substandard work will significantly undermine the performance of the building or equipment that it is intended to serve.

    In broad terms, the most talented and skilled refrigeration and air conditioning engineers will work on larger and more complex projects, and the most challenging refrigeration and air conditioning issues. These personnel are most likely to help lead the industry in resolving issues relating to climate and environment. Affecting economies and community wellbeing and development, including health, the modern refrigeration and air conditioning engineer has immense scope for make a positive impact locally and globally.

  • Concrete Construction Work

    Concrete Construction Work

    A Concrete Construction Worker generally works on commercial and residential projects. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore the Concrete Construction Worker has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business.

    Concrete Construction Work is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry, and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The Concrete Construction Worker works internally and externally, including on the homes of customers and on building sites, in all weather conditions and on small and major projects. He or she will interpret drawings, set out and measure, construct and finish to a high standard.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, working accurately are the universal attributes of the outstanding construction practitioner. The Concrete Construction Worker works in a team. Each team member takes on a high degree of personal responsibility and autonomy.

    From working safely and tidily with resilience and endurance through to exceptional planning and scheduling, concentration, precision, accuracy and attention to detail to achieve an excellent finish, every step in the process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible and very costly.

    With the international mobility of people, the construction practitioner faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented Concrete Construction Worker there are many commercial and international opportunities; however these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with concrete and formwork is therefore likely to expand.

Transportation and Logistics
  • Autobody Repair

    Autobody Repair

    Autobody repairers realign both the structure and the panelling of both light and heavy good vehicles after they have been involved in collisions. This can often be a complex process as each collision will present different degrees and directions of damage. The repaired vehicle must conform to the stringent specifications laid down by the vehicle manufacturer and meet both their tolerances and their safety specifications. An autobody repairer needs to be familiar with mechanical components and their function as well as the specific and often complex safety restraint systems (SRS) fitted to modern vehicles. The autobody repairer returns the vehicle to a condition where it ready for refinishing by a car painter.

    An autobody repairer works in a specialist garage dedicated to repair and equipped with the machinery and equipment suitable to repair a wide variety of modern passenger cars.

    An autobody repairer’s work is often divided between major and minor collision damage; however, skills in both areas may often be used on the same vehicle. In a major collision repair the autobody repairer will mount the vehicle onto a specialized body jig with which he or she can diagnose the direction and extent of the misalignment to the car body structure. He or she then attaches heavy hydraulic pulling equipment to the body and uses this pulling force to reverse the damaging force.

    After the misalignment has been rectified to the structure the repairer will normally have to remove damaged structural and non-structural members which are replaced with new sections or part sections using various welding processes and/or riveting and bonding. For a minor collision an autobody repairer may replace or repair non-structural panels to a condition suitable for refinishing with paint.

    Repairers must be able to use vehicle body alignment benches and associated measuring equipment (universal and fixed bracket) as a means of assessing the extent of damage and reinstating the structure to its original specifications. An autobody repairer must be a skilled welder who is capable of joining a variety of metals such as low carbon steel, high strength steels or aluminium alloys using metal active gas welding (MAG), tungsten inert gas welding (TIG), and resistance spot welding.

    He or she must be able to select the correct consumables for the metal being welded and adjust the machine to provide an efficient high quality weld. In some circumstances body panels may be replaced using bonding and riveting equipment. The repairer must be able to prepare, adjust and use this equipment effectively following manufacturers specifications to reinstate damage panels.

    Autobody repairers must be able to remove damaged sections with minimum disruption to surrounding body work and re-attach/re-align the parts to reinstate the integrity of the body shell. These parts or panels may be welded, bolted or riveted.

    For minor damage that does not require the replacement of a part or panel an autobody repairer will use a variety of repair tools to remove the damage and reinstate the panel’s original contours. These may involve a range of shaped hammers and ‘dollies’, bumping files, body files, pry bars and oil stones.

  • Aircraft Maintenance

    Aircraft Maintenance

    An aircraft maintenance technician works in the commercial and public service sectors, performing a range of processes on aeronautical products. The aircraft maintenance technician has a critical responsibility to work professionally to ensure the safety of customers and maintain the reputation of the team or organization.

    The aircraft maintenance technician normally works in an aircraft hangar. However, there are times when working outdoors is required. He or she may work for large and small organizations and occasionally directly for individual customers. He or she will undertake a number of processes including inspection, servicing, troubleshooting, removal, installation, rigging, testing and repairing. An aircraft maintenance technician may specialize by working on particular aeronautical products such as helicopters and UAVs (Unmanned Aeronautical Vehicles), and tilt wing aircraft. Whether or not he or she specializes, work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem-solving and the ability consistently to work safely and rigorously, adhering to industry regulations and manufacturers’ instructions are the universal attributes of the outstanding aircraft maintenance technician.

    In a mobile labour market, the aircraft maintenance technician may work in teams, or alone, or in both from time to time. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced aircraft maintenance technician takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From safeguarding the safety of the customer through scrupulous attention to safe working, to undertaking complex repairs, every process matters and mistakes can be life threatening. The aircraft maintenance technician is the last line of defence to ensure the safety of the aircraft before flight.

    As a part of a global industry the aircraft maintenance technician faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges (including travelling into space). For the talented aircraft maintenance technician there are many commercial and international opportunities; however these carry with them the need to understand and work with different regulations and technological advancements. The diversity of skills associated with aircraft maintenance is therefore likely to expand.

  • Automobile Technology

    Automobile Technology

    The modern Light Vehicle Automobile Technician is likely to be employed in a workshop that is closely associated with one major manufacturer of light vehicles. Their expertise may be greatest with that manufacturer’s vehicles; however, depending on the situation and range of services offered by the workshop, they may also handle other manufacturers’ vehicles. Automobile Technicians also work in garages and workshops that are not associated with particular manufacturers. Where this is the case they may experience a wider range of light vehicles and use alternative equipment, parts and materials.

    The trained and competent Light Vehicle Automobile Technician will service and repair a range of light vehicles. For diagnosis, repair and replacement, depending on the nature of the workshop, they may use the manufacturers’ equipment, parts, materials and procedures. Therefore, according to a workshop’s relationship with manufacturers, the Technician’s experience may be deep or broad, or both. In every garage and workshop success is measured in time, correct fault finding and repair, and repeat business.

    Most garages and workshops are small businesses or cost centres that work to tight financial parameters. The light automobile sector is volatile, being dependent on the wider economy and heavily affected by technological advances and environmental concerns. The highly skilled Automobile Technician keeps abreast of continuous changes in the sector, whether these are to do with performance, safety or green energy sources. They will deeply understand vehicles’ electrical and electronic systems and their integration; have physical stamina, coordination and kinaesthetic skills, and be versatile. They will be assigned the more complex diagnostic tasks, the most advanced vehicles, and those incorporating the latest technologies. This person may rapidly progress to more senior roles as trainer, supervisor, planner and/or manager.

  • Car Painting

    Car Painting

    Car painters (refinishers) are responsible for reinstating the pre-accident paint finish to cars after the structure and/or the panels have been repaired or replaced. They may also be asked to completely repaint a whole vehicle either to change its colour or reinstate its newness. Car painters may also become involved in matching colours to an original colour no longer available or to colours that prove difficult to match. A car painter must match the colour, shade and texture of the adjoining panels that are not being painted.

    Car painters can work in various work environments from an autobody repair shop to an aircraft hangar, dependent upon what vehicle or transport system they are painting. They work to apply paints inside an enclosed spray booth/oven in order to protect the environment from harmful products.

    Car painters prepare panels or vehicles to receive paint. They may carry out minor panel repairs and apply undercoats, colour coats and clear sealant coats which provide the high gloss levels required. They may be required to identify a colour code using various methods, mix the correct amount of colour to pre-determined formulae and spray test cards to test the suitability of this colour match to the original colour and shade.

    A Car painter needs to be aware of time schedules and may often be working on several vehicles at one time while waiting for previously applied materials to dry.

    Car painters (refinishers) may be required to refinish a wide range of items such as passenger cars, racing cars, vintage and classic vehicles, commercial goods vehicles, trains, aeroplanes, static structures or furniture. They may be required to refinish a wide variety of materials such as metals, plastics, composite materials or wood.

  • Heavy Vehicle Maintenance

    Heavy Vehicle Maintenance

    The Heavy Vehicle Maintenance Technician maintains and repairs large machines and industrial equipment, both towed and self-propelled, used in mining, forestry, agriculture, landscaping, material handling, and transportation. The technician must be able to maintain and repair internal combustion engines and components, both stationary and mobile, as well as on-highway and off-highway vehicles, both motorized and towed; tracked and rubber-tired equipment; ground-engaging equipment; and earth-moving equipment.

    Maintenance and repair can involve individual components or entire systems, requiring the technician to have skill with engines, hydraulics, electronics, braking systems, and much more. The technician must use specific tools to diagnose function, make adjustments, repair or replace defective components or systems, test repairs for proper performance, interpret instructions in technical manuals, write service reports, and ensure that the work meets manufacturers’ specifications and the requirements of legislation. The technician is frequently the interlocutor between the employer, the customer, and the manufacturer. This experience can allow the technician to advance to senior roles such as trainer, supervisor, or manager.

    Although technicians often specialize in certain machines or equipment, either by choice or as a result of employment, the diversity of heavy equipment, along with rapid changes in technology, require broad knowledge and adaptability. Technicians must also be able to work alone or as part of a team, at a variety of hours, and in an employer’s shop, a customer’s building, or outdoors in urban or rural locations, regardless of weather. Machines often require quick intervention to enable interrupted activity to resume.

    The work is most rewarding for those who enjoy working with their hands and are logical, curious and interested in problem solving. The technician also needs good vision, hearing, and sense of smell to diagnose problems. The occupation requires strength and stamina. Proper safety standards must be maintained at all times to avoid risk of injury involved in working on heavy equipment and with power tools.

  • Freight Forwarding

    Freight Forwarding

Creative Arts and Fashion
  • Jewellery

    Jewellery

    The skill of jewellery making consists of the manufacture of fashion accessories using precious metal.

    A jewellery maker can make exclusive individual pieces for use, pieces ready to be set with precious gemstones or prototypes for reproduction in numbers through lost-wax casting.

    A jewellery maker will usually work from detailed drawings created by a jewellery designer. They will therefore need to be able to correctly interpret these drawings to create a jewellery piece as envisioned by the designer. A jewellery maker must be able to respect the shapes and forms of the designer’s original concept and should be able to interact with the designer, giving and receiving feedback regarding the manufacturing process. A jewellery maker’s skill-set does not necessarily require direct contact with clients as there will usually be intermediaries involved.

    A jewellery maker may also be required to replicate a piece directly, or use jewellery making skills to renovate or repair an existing piece.

    Dealing with precious metals, a jewellery maker needs to be precise, work economically and avoid wastage of materials. The work is intricately detailed and requires a high level of skill, focus and concentration. Once the jewellery maker has finished a piece it may progress to further phases of the manufacturing process requiring goldsmith’s industry skills other than jewellery making, such as gem-setting and casting.

    For this reason a jewellery maker must have some knowledge and understanding of other goldsmith’s industry skills. They must, for example, have an appreciation of gemstones, their characteristics, cuts, uses and impact on the finished piece. Similarly they must be aware of the different phases of reproduction through casting.

    Jewellery makers will work in a goldsmith’s workshop using specialist tools and equipment. Due to the intricate nature of the work, many of the tools are delicate and therefore need to be used and handled with extreme care. Some jewellery makers may be independent, but more often they will work in a workshop with other jewellery makers or technicians with other specialist goldsmith’s industry skills. They must always observe skill-specific health and safety procedures and regulations.

    Jewellery is made from precious metals and gemstones, which are highly valuable. A jewellery maker must therefore act with complete honesty and integrity and be fully aware of security and the regulations relating to the purchase, production and sale of precious metals, gemstones and finished pieces.

  • Floristry

    Floristry

    The florist may work in one of several sectors but often they are self-employed and work on commissioned projects or in the retail sector. As such they need to have business acumen and excellent interpersonal skills when dealing with clients. Excellent levels of customer care and sales skills are crucial. As themed floral works are often commissioned for important life events such as weddings, the florist must have perception and be able to offer appropriate expert advice to the client whilst interpreting the vision for the finished project.

    Flowers and other botanical materials are delicate, easily damaged or spoilt and have a limited storage life. As such the florist must be respectful of the raw materials with which they work and apply extensive knowledge of effective sourcing, purchasing and storage of all botanical materials.

    Design of a floral work, whether it is a small bouquet or a large installation for a major event, requires the florist to be innovative, creative and to demonstrate artistic and design talent that incorporates aesthetics and practicalities. The florist must apply the rules and theory of composition, colour and technique as valid by the floristry trade worldwide, and show clear ideas (principles and elements of floral design) in his/her works.

    The florist will use their expertise and knowledge of flowers, plants, botanical materials and accessories to produce floral works. There is a wide scope of practice in industry. Some florists will work in retail outlets and prepare bouquets and arrangements speculatively for sale and must therefore be keenly aware of their market. At the other end of the professional spectrum, a florist may be commissioned to provide floral displays for major high profile international events that require interpreting a theme and working effectively with a large team and other professionals in a high pressure situation with tight time limitations.

  • Fashion Technology

    Fashion Technology

    The Fashion Technology practitioner creates garments. The technical skills involved include design, pattern construction, cutting and garment manufacture.

    The practitioner may work in one of several sectors but often they are self-employed and work on commissioned projects or in the retail manufacturing sector or in sampling garments for production. As such they need to have business acumen and strong interpersonal skills when dealing with clients. Excellent customer care and selling skills are crucial. As some work is often commissioned for important events, the practitioner must understand the needs of the client and be able to offer appropriate expert advice whilst interpreting the vision for the finished project. Customer briefs must be clearly understood and followed accurately.

    Fabrics are often expensive, delicate and easily damaged or handled incorrectly. Given this, the practitioner must be respectful of the raw materials with which they work and apply extensive knowledge of effective sourcing, purchasing, handling and storage of all materials. Sustainability, ethics and budgets are all serious considerations when sourcing materials and selecting sub-contractors.

    The design of a garment requires innovation, creativity and artistic and design talents that incorporate aesthetics and practicalities. The practitioner must apply the rules and theory of composition including design elements and principles as well as technique. He or she is often creative and artistic, with a good eye for design and the ability to create pleasing and functional garments, suitable for their purpose. In addition, a thorough knowledge and understanding of specialist equipment and its use is essential. Another requirement is a high level of technical knowledge in patternmaking and construction techniques. Different fabrics will react in various ways to the manufacturing process and these characteristics must be considered throughout the preparation and production process.

    There is a wide range of practice in the fashion sector. Some practitioners produce small ranges for retail outlets or high class fashion houses or prepare bespoke garments ordered by individual clients. At the other end of the professional spectrum, the practitioner may work in an industrial setting, producing prototypes for mass production. Practice also varies across the world. The fashion industry is truly global: for example, a garment may be designed and prototyped in one country and sub-contracted for manufacture in another.

    Wherever employed, it is essential that the practitioner is aware of current and emerging fashions and trends in the fashion industry. Equally important is an awareness of new developments in fabrics and textiles as well as machinery and equipment. Significant damage can be done to a business and its reputation if fashion trends are misread.

  • Graphic Design Technology

    Graphic Design Technology

    Graphic Design Technology comprises many different skills and disciplines in the production of graphic design and output. The diversity of the skills required in the industry are very broad: it is common for people working in this field to be specialists in a particular aspect. As a result, a team may cover the Graphic Design Technology process, with each member of the team having their own strengths, specialities and roles.

    Graphic Design Technology involves working with external and internal clients to create solutions to their needs; it may also include the printing or online publication production. People working in this industry often work closely with their clients and must be strong communicators so that they can achieve the client’s objectives successfully. They require strong interactive, research, design and technical skills. In order to have these they need to understand the target audience, markets, trends and cultural differences and what the client wants. They must be able to work in either formal or informal teams, or stand-alone.

    After completing the research and planning stage, a project is interpreted to form a design in appropriate industry specific software. The design must be set up with the correct technical specifications for output or online publication. It is essential that practitioners understand all phases of the procedure including the constraints of the specified printing process. These skills also apply to re-designing or updating a design.

    There are various employment opportunities within the industry. This can include becoming a freelancer, business owner, or being employed by an advertising firm, a design firm, a printing company or a company with a design department. Practitioners may have a broad role, or specialize as a graphic designer, graphic artist, prepress operator, typographer, typesetter, type designer, image manipulation specialist, illustrator, art director, production manager, digital printer, information designer, publisher or packaging specialist

  • Visual Merchandising

    Visual Merchandising

    A visual merchandiser creates window and interior displays in shops and department stores thus is essentially responsible for the ‘look’ of the retail outlet. The chief aim of a visual merchandiser is to maximize sales by communicating with the target audience and creating a positive atmosphere. The visual merchandiser communicates directly with the target audience through their designs and creates a positive impression which in turn impacts on the sales revenue of the business. Whilst not possible to precisely measure the impact of the visual merchandiser’s displays it is accepted that they are an increasingly important element of the marketing and sales mix of a successful retail business.

    The visual merchandiser works in retail outlets, which are part of a group with central support functions and in small independent shops where there is greater personal autonomy and responsibility. The activities a visual merchandiser undertakes are based on interpreting and researching a brief, creating a design, and implementation - working with the products and their props.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity: the ability to develop original ‘eye-catching’ concepts with the WOW factor which positively engage the target market and attention to detail/perfection are the universal attributes of the outstanding visual merchandiser.

    The visual merchandiser may work in teams or alone, depending on the size of the business. In medium to large businesses they work very closely with marketing and sales teams. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced visual merchandiser takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From understanding the goals and targets of marketing and sales departments, interpreting the Brief correctly and understanding the behaviour of target markets to creating a display with the WOW factor every stage in the visual merchandising process matters and displays have a close relationship with sales revenues.

    With the globalization of visual imagery and the international mobility of people, the visual merchandiser faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented visual merchandiser there are many commercial and international opportunities; however these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures, trends and fashions. The diversity of skills associated with visual merchandising is therefore likely to expand.

  • 3D Digital Game Art

    3D Digital Game Art

Social and Personal Services
  • Hairdressing

    Hairdressing

    A hairdresser generally works in the commercial sector, offering a range of services and treatments to the hair for individual clients. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the service required, and the payment made by the client. Therefore the hairdresser has a continuing responsibility to work professionally and interactively with the client in order to give satisfaction and thus maintain and grow the business. Hairdressing is closely associated with other parts of the service sector, and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    Hairdressing also has an important therapeutic role in supporting individuals’ self- esteem and confidence. It also helps to relieve the effects of illness, and can aid recovery.

    The hairdresser works in diverse environments including large, medium, small, or mobile salons, client homes and in product companies and training institution, film and television productions, theatre, wig work, hair replacement, technicians, session stylists and product research and design. He or she may offer a wide range of services, including cutting, colouring, styling, chemical reformation and special hair treatments. Alternatively, the hairdresser may specialize, for example by becoming either a men’s or ladies’ hairdresser, or a colourist. Irrespective of this, work organization and management, communication and client care, the ability to analyse hair types and conditions, and to work safely and to manufacturers’ instructions, are the universal attributes of the outstanding hairdresser. In a mobile labour market, the hairdresser may work in teams, or alone, or in both from time to time. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced hairdresser takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From safeguarding the health and wellbeing of the client through scrupulous attention to safe working, to achieving exceptional effects for special occasions, every treatment matters and mistakes are largely irreversible.

    With the globalization of visual imagery, the worldwide market in hair and beauty products, and the international mobility of people, the hairdresser faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented hairdresser there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures, trends and hair types. The diversity of skills associated with hairdressing is therefore likely to expand, with the WorldSkills Competition reflecting the skills and attributes of the most outward looking and talented entrants to the sector.

  • Beauty Therapy

    Beauty Therapy

    A beauty therapist generally works in the commercial sector, offering specialist services, treatments and advice for the skin, body care, massage and make-up of individual clients. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the service required, and the payment made by the client. Therefore the beauty therapist has a continuing responsibility to work professionally and interactively with the client in order to give satisfaction and thus maintain and grow the business. Beauty therapy is closely associated with other parts of the service sector, such as hairdressing, fashion, and media and with the many products and services that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    Beauty therapy also has an important therapeutic role in supporting individual’s self-esteem and confidence. It also helps to ameliorate the effects of illness, and can aid recovery.

    The beauty therapist works in diverse environments, including large or small salons within leisure and health related organizations. The specialist services and treatments offered by the beauty therapist relate to the: face, body, feet, hands and nails. The beauty therapist may specialize, for example in manicure or pedicure. Irrespective of this, work organization and management, professional attitude, client care and relationships are the universal attributes of the outstanding beauty therapist.

    The beauty therapist works in a 1:1 relationship with clients and can be part of a wider team. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced beauty therapist takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From safeguarding the health and wellbeing of the client through scrupulous attention to safe working, to achieving exceptional make-up effects for special occasions, every treatment matters and mistakes are largely irreversible.

    With the growing worldwide demand for beauty therapy services and associated products, and the international mobility of people, the beauty therapist faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented beauty therapist there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with beauty therapy is therefore likely to expand.

  • Pâtisserie and Confectionery

    Pâtisserie and Confectionery

    The confectioner/pastry cook is a highly skilled professional who produces a wide range of intricate and predominantly sweet items. They will produce various confectionary products such as hand finished chocolates, candies and petit fours for service in hotels and restaurants or for retail in specialist shops and outlets. Pastry cooks produce a full range of hot and cold desserts, cakes, biscuits and iced products for service in high quality hotels and restaurants and for retail sale. They may also produce elaborate display pieces using sugar, ice, marzipan or other decorative materials and ingredients. Some may specialize in producing decorated and themed cakes for special events.

    A high degree of specialist knowledge and skill is required. Confectioners and pastry cooks will have undergone years of training in order for them to develop the levels of skill required. They will be proficient in a wide range of specialist techniques to produce and decorate confectionery and sweet items. An artistic talent and gastronomic flair are required alongside the ability to work effectively and economically in order to achieve outstanding results within set timeframes and budgets.

    In some circumstances the confectioner/pastry cook will need to work directly with clients, so good customer service skills are required alongside the ability to discuss a client’s needs and to offer advice and guidance. The ability to work on their own initiative is essential.

    The expert practitioner will work using a range of specialist equipment and materials. The confectioner/pastry cook must take account of the quality of ingredients, respect those ingredients and work to high levels of food hygiene and health and safety.

    The specialist confectioner/pastry cook is likely to work in high class hotels and restaurants. In some continental countries it is often the case that specialist retail shops sell hand-made and decorated pastry products, cakes and confectionery will use the skills of the confectioner/pastry cook. Some experts may work on a self-employed basis, working directly to client’s briefs for specialist products.

  • Cooking

    Cooking

    The professional chef can work in a wide range of establishments including high class restaurants and hotels, welfare catering such as hospitals and residential homes and industrial sites providing catering services to staff. The range of skills and customer expectations will vary according to the work-place. There is also a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the service provided and the payment made by the customer or corporate client. As well as the skill of cooking, the role of a chef will also demand further skills that relate to cooking in a commercial setting and therefore working to a budget or expected profit margin. These skills include menu compilation and costing, control and correct storage of stock, planning work for self and others and managing a kitchen brigade.

    The chef in a high class hotel or restaurant offering fine dining will need to demonstrate outstanding skills in food preparation and presentation. They will be expected to create and adapt dishes that meet the expectations of demanding customers who are used to dining in exclusive restaurants. Fashions and trends in cuisine fluctuate so it is important that the top class chef keeps abreast of these trends and adapts their product and service accordingly. The customer wishing to experience fine dining is expecting a memorable meal experience which incorporates the setting and ambiance of the restaurant, restaurant theatre and outstanding customer care as well as exceptional food.

    Strict maintenance of the highest personal and food hygiene and safety are paramount at all times. Failure to fulfil this requirement can have a devastating impact on diners’ health and well-being and may cause irreparable damage to the restaurant’s reputation and business.

    Commercial kitchens are equipped with complex specialist equipment that must be used carefully to avoid accident and injury. Kitchens are potentially dangerous places to work. Staff work under intense pressure, often in a confined space, working with hot food and dangerous tools and equipment.

    Effective communication skills are essential for the chef. A professional kitchen is a high pressure environment where teams of chefs specializing in various producing aspects of the menu work together to produce the entire meal. Co-ordination of the kitchen brigade is essential to quality assure the dishes being sent to the restaurant and to meet very tight time frames. In addition, the kitchen team need to work effectively with other departments in the hotel or restaurant to ensure a good overall experience for the guest.

    With globalization of cuisine, chefs can work all over the world. Talented chefs are always in demand and have opportunities to travel and work in some of the most interesting and exciting global destinations. This carries with it the need to appreciate diverse cultures, especially with regard to dietary requirements and traditions.

  • Restaurant Service

    Restaurant Service

    The restaurant service practitioner provides high quality food and drink service to guests. A food service practitioner generally works in the commercial sector, offering a range of services to customers. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the service required, and the payment made by the guest. Therefore the practitioner has a continuing responsibility to work professionally and interactively with the guest in order to give satisfaction and thus maintain and grow the business.

    The practitioner is likely to work in a hotel or restaurant. However, the size, nature and quality of these establishments can vary enormously from internationally renowned hotel chains to smaller, privately-owned, more intimate restaurants. The quality and level of service provided and expected by guests will also vary. The styles of service will be dependent on the targeted customer and can range from simple self-service operations to elaborate service styles where dishes can be prepared at the guests’ table. In its more elaborate form, food and drink service can be likened to a form of theatre.

    High quality food and drink service requires the practitioner to have extensive knowledge of international cuisine, beverages and wines. They must have a complete command of accepted serving rules and must know the preparation of speciality dishes and drinks at the guests’ table or in the bar. The food server is the most important person in attending to the guests and providing the meal experience. Skill and resourcefulness, good manners, excellent interaction with guests, aplomb, excellent personal and food hygiene practices, smart appearance and practical ability are all essential.

    A wide range of specialist tools and materials will be used for the service of specialist dishes, drinks and wines. The practitioner will be familiar with their use in addition to the more usual pieces of equipment that are found in most dining situations.

    Irrespective of the working environment, excellent communication and customer care skills are universal attributes of the outstanding practitioner. Food service personnel will work as part of a team and with other teams in the hotel or restaurant. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced practitioner takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. This ranges from safeguarding the health and wellbeing of the guests and colleagues through scrupulous attention to safe and hygienic working practices, to achieving exceptional experiences for special occasions.

    With the globalization of gastronomy, the expansion of travel for pleasure and business, and the international mobility of people, staff in the hospitality industry enjoy rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented restaurateur there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures, trends and environments. The diversity of skills associated with restaurant service is therefore likely to keep expanding.

  • Health and Social Care

    Health and Social Care

    A health and social care practitioner offers a range of support to individual clients and their family and has a continuing responsibility to work professionally and interactively with the client in order to ensure their holistic care needs are met. Whilst the health and social care practitioner may work directly for the client they are normally employed by an organization within the health and social care sector. Health and social care is closely associated with the medical profession.

    The health and social care practitioner works in diverse environments, including the homes of clients, hospitals, community day care and residential and nursing homes. He or she manages health, physical and psychosocial well-being, support of growth and development, caring and rehabilitation. The support provided is based on assessing planning, delivering and evaluating a care programme.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, the ability to understand, empathize and work with clients to improve the quality of their life, are the universal attributes of the outstanding practitioner.

    The practitioner may work in a team or alone or in both from time to time. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced practitioner takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From accurately assessing the needs of clients through to building client relationships and delivering exceptional care for clients in a range of circumstances, every interaction matters and mistakes could have a serious, life threatening impact.

    With the increasing international mobility of people the health and social care practitioner faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented assistant there are many international opportunities; however these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and systems/regulations. The diversity of skills associated with health and social care is therefore likely to expand.

  • Bakery

    Bakery

    The baker is a highly skilled professional who produces a wide range of bread and pastry items. They will produce various bakery products such as instant breads, sweet doughs, rye breads, croissants, brioche, artisan breads and puff pastry products commercially. These items will appear in a large number of bakeries.  Bakers may also have to produce elaborate display decorative breads using creative skills.

    A high degree of specialist knowledge and skill is required. Bakers will have undergone years of training in order for them to develop the level of skill required. They will be proficient in wide range of specialist techniques; to mix, process and bake the variety of breads needed. An artistic talent and attention to detail are required alongside the ability to work effectively and economically in order to achieve outstanding results within set timeframes.

    Bakers must have a good understanding about reformulating recipes and adapting to a changing environment. The ability to work on their own initiative is essential. They will use a range of specialist equipment and materials. The professional baker must take account of the quality of ingredients, respect those ingredients and work to high levels of food hygiene and safety.

    Specialist bakers are likely to work in high quality hotels, smaller country bakeries or specialised bakeries. It is often the case that specialist retail shops sell hand-made and decorated pastry products, artisan breads and decorative doughs, which are prepared using the skills of a specialist baker.

  • Hotel Reception

    Hotel Reception